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RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while typing up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrivedYY LIU Nymphensittich Dauerhaft Vogelkäfig Zubehör Einfach Zu Sä

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Electronics Themed Comics

Both of these vintage electronics-themed comics, which appeared in a 1946 issue of Radio−Craft magazine, have a unique feature. The first is one of the very popular (then and now) "Radio Term Illustrated" comics where a reader suggested a way to relate a common term or phrase to a situation in the technical realm which can be similarly interpreted. In this case the subject is a "dynamic speaker." It is a form of a double entendre. The other comic mocks the use of "handie-talkies" as a prop for abetting an unlawful act. In this same issue is an article entitled "Inside the Handie-Talkie" that is sort of a reverse engineering exercise on what was a relatively new technology from the recently ended World War II era. This cartoon was considered profound enough to warrant an editorial remark by the magazine...

Remote Control Weapons

World War II brought about the first wireless remotely controlled weapons. Prior to radio technology, bombs and missiles needed to either be within a distance serviceable by detonation wires, or were set off using mechanical or electrical timers. Both of those methods required the operator to gain access to the target area at a time relatively close to when the attack was to occur. Army battalions did have warheads with spooled wires attached that enabled them to control the time of detonation and even in some instances some degree of steering, but range was limited. Wireless technology enabled weapons to be delivered and controlled over great distances. Missiles could be directed enroute and bombs could be planted practically anytime and anywhere to await a signal when appropriate. Hugo Gernsback wrote a short op-ed...

General Electric Announces Split into 3 Companies

Another great American company is feeling the pain of a diminishing national dominance in world markets. General Electric just announced it will break into three separate companies - energy, health care and aviation. I place the blame on both management and labor. Management in this "woke" era puts far too much emphasis on very costly political correctness, selling IP to foreign interests, and bending over to politicians' whims while labor (union and non-union) has permitted and even abetted the outsourcing of jobs and offshoring of manufacturing. This has been happening for a few decades, and the country has paid severely for it. Consider all the stalwart century-old manufacturing and retail companies gone, acquired by foreigners, or otherwise minimalized: Westinghouse, RCA, Bell, Pontiac, IBM, Motorola, Oldsmobile, Sears Roebuck, Firestone - even Budweiser is now based in Belgium. The list is huge. Will the last founding American company please turn out the lights on the way out?

New Dimension in Magnetism and Superconductivity

"An international team of scientists from Austria and Germany has launched a new paradigm in magnetism and superconductivity, putting effects of curvature, topology, and 3D geometry into the spotlight of next-decade research. The results are published in Advanced Materials. Traditionally, the primary field in which curvature plays a pivotal role is the theory of general relativity. In recent years, however, the impact of curvilinear geometry has entered various disciplines, ranging from solid-state physics to soft-matter physics to chemistry and biology; and giving rise to a plethora of emerging domains, such as curvilinear cell biology, semiconductors, superfluidity, optics, plasmonics and 2D van der Waals materials. In modern magnetism, superconductivity and spintronics, extending nanostructures into the third dimension has become a major research avenue..."

Introduction to Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to: 1. State the applications of a resonant circuit. 2. Identify the conditions that exist in a resonant circuit. 3. State and apply the formula for resonant frequency of an AC circuit. 4. State the effect of changes in inductance (L) and capacitance (C) on resonant frequency (fr). 5. Identify the characteristics peculiar to a series resonant circuit. 6. Identify the characteristics peculiar to a parallel resonant circuit. 7. State and apply the formula for Q. 8. State what is meant by the bandwidth of a resonant circuit and compute the bandwidth for a given circuit. 9. Identify the four general types of filters. 10. Identify how the series- and parallel-resonant circuit can be used as a bandpass or a band-reject filter...

Admiral "Aeroscope" Midget Sets Radio Service Data Sheet

For many years I have been scanning and posting Radio Service Data Sheets like this one featuring the Admiral "Aeroscope" 161−5L, 162−5L, and 163−5L Midget Set models which appeared in a 1939 issue of Radio−Craft magazine. There are still many people who restore and service these vintage radios, and often it can be difficult or impossible to find schematics and/or tuning information. Some websites offer to sell this information, but often what is shown here is enough to get an old radio working again since most times both schematics and alignment steps are included. I keep a running list of all data sheets to facilitate a search...

RF & Electronics Symbols for Office™

It was a lot of work, but I finally finished a version of the "RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols" that works well with Microsoft Office™ programs Word™, Excel™, and Power Point™. This is an equivalent of the extensive set of amplifier, mixer, filter, switch, connector, waveguide, digital, analog, antenna, and other commonly used symbols for system block diagrams and schematics created for Visio™. Each of the 1,000 or so symbols was exported individually from Visio in the EMF file format, then imported into Word on a Drawing Canvas. The EMF format allows an image to be scaled up or down without becoming pixelated, so all the shapes can be resized in a document and still look good. The imported symbols can also be UnGrouped into their original constituent parts for editing. Check them out!

Many Thanks to Withwave for Continued Support!

Withwave manufactures an extensive line of metrology quality coaxial test cable assemblies, connectors (wave-, end-, vertical-launch, board edge, panel mount), calibration kits (SOLT), a fully automated 4-port vector network analyzer (VNA) calibrator, between- and in-series connector adaptors, attenuators, terminations, DC blocks, torque wrenches, test probes & probe positioner. Special test fixtures for calibration and multicoax cable assemblies. Frequency ranges from DC through 110 GHz. Please contact Withwave today to see how they can help your project succeed.

Tuning on the U.H.F.

Although this "Tuning on the UHF" article refers to a specific radio band popular for "shortwave listening," the information therein is generally applicable to any band. It appeared in a 1945 issue of Radio-Craft magazine, at a time predating widespread ownership of television, where instead of watching the boob tube many people enjoyed tuning in broadcast stations from across the country and across the globe. Radio was still a mysterious and magical thing. A tapped coil, variometer, permeability tuner, standard coil-condenser, and General Radio butterfly tuner are possible methods for any frequency typically used...

What to Do with a Tape Recorder

Remember tape recorders? They were a big deal in 1963 when these comics appeared in Popular Electronics magazine, but they began going the way of the typewriter about three decades ago when solid state voice recorders hit the market, but now smartphones with sound recording have made even those devices seem outdated. In fact, when my daughter's house burned down a few weeks ago, all of the on-site conversations with the insurance adjuster, fire marshal, and housing contractors were recorded to ensure an accurate account of what was said by all parties. In North Carolina, law does not require you to apprise other parties taking part of the conversation that they are being recorded, so long as the person doing the recording is an active participant in the conversation (aka "one-party consent"). But I digress... back to the tape recorder era. These four comics were drawn by Mr. Bill Hutchinson back when not only...

Practical Electric Airplanes Decades Away

"Electric Airplanes Won't Make Much of a Dent in Air Travel for Decades to Come. Reason: Batteries are nowhere near able to sustain wide-body airliners over flights measuring in the thousands of kilometers. Exaggeration has become the default method for news reporting, and the possibility of commercial electric flight has been no exception, with repeated claims that these new planes will utterly change how we live. In 2017, Boeing and JetBlue funded Zunum Aero, a U.S. company that promised nothing less than transforming air travel with short-haul electric planes capable of carrying 12 people - and doing it by 2022. Two years later Boeing declined to continue funding the project. At the Paris Air Show..."

Meteor Detection by Amateur Radio

The 1940s and 1950s was an era of much advancement in our knowledge of Earth's upper atmosphere and its affects on radio communications - both good and bad as reported by this 1947 issue of QST magazine. Industry, government, academic, and amateur groups all played major roles in conducting experiments and publishing findings for the interested community to share and build upon. Still today a huge amount of research is being carried out to better understand how the various layers of the atmosphere - from ground level to space - are affected by extraterrestrial influences. A year ago I posted an article, along with a bit of editorializing, from the July 1958 edition of Radio-Electronics entitled..."

WWV/WWVH Scientific Modulation Working Group

Website visitor Rick L. wrote to say, "I was listening to WWV this morning in order to coordinate all my clox throughout the QTH here in Taxconsin (sic) and caught the announcement on this:" WWV/WWVH Scientific Modulation Working Group. "NIST is participating in a new project to study the ionosphere and its effects on high frequency (HF) radio propagation. As part of the WWV/WWVH Scientific Modulation Working Group, radio stations WWV and WWVH will each broadcast test signals once per hour that will allow operators using a type of software defined receiver (SDR) to record the signal data at their location and upload it to a central server for analysis..."

Post Your Engineer & Technician Job Openings on RF Cafe for Free

RF Cafe's raison d'être is and always has been to provide useful, quality content for engineers, technicians, engineering managers, students, and hobbyists. Part of that mission is offering to post applicable THj Badewannenbrett Badewannenisolierungsabdeckung,PVC-Sicherhei. HR department employees and/or managers of hiring companies are welcome to submit opportunities for posting at no charge. 3rd party recruiters and temp agencies are not included so as to assure a high quality of listings. Please read through the easy procedure to benefit from RF Cafe's high quality visitors...

Thanks to PCB Directory for Continued Support!

PCB Directory is the largest directory of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Manufacturers, Assembly houses, and Design Services on the Internet. We have listed the leading printed circuit board manufacturers around the world and made them searchable by their capabilities - Number of laminates used, Board thicknesses supported, Number of layers supported, Types of substrates (FR-4, Rogers, flexible, rigid), Geographical location (U.S., China), kinds of services (manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, prototype), and more. Fast turn-around on quotations for PCB fabrication and assembly.

Engineering Website Crossword Vanity for November 7th

This engineering crossword puzzle for November 7th has no fewer than 8 words and clues naming the title of this website. Otherwise, all other clues and words are related directly to RF, microwave, and mm-wave engineering, optics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical subjects. As always, this crossword contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Reginald Denny or the Tunguska event in Siberia). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!

Please Visit Empower RF's Website in Appreciation of Their Support

Empower RF Systems is a global leader in power amplifier solutions. Empower RF Systems is an established and technologically superior supplier of high power solid state RF & microwave amplifiers. Our offerings include modules, intelligent rack-mount amplifiers, and multi-function RF Power Amplifier solutions to 6 GHz in broadband and band specific designs. Output power combinations range from tens of watts to multi-kilowatts. Unprecedented size, weight and power reduction of our amplifiers is superior to anything in the market at similar frequencies and power levels.

The Radiolight "Talking Beam"

Some of the earliest examples of communications via light waves include signaling systems used by mariners to send and receive simple coded messages in ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship modes. Doing so involved candles or bonfires, depending on how far the signals needed to be sent. Costal lighthouses have served an optical communications function for centuries. Even Paul Revere relied on optical communications from the Old North Church in Boston during his "Midnight Ride" to warn colonists of the impending British invasion - "One [lamp] if by land, and two [lamps] if by sea." In the 1930s, Elman B. Myers designed and exhibited the first widely publicized light wave communication system that modulated a powerful mercury vapor lamp (a la many street lights) with information provided by a low power source. A photocell on the receiving end captured the optical energy and converted back to baseband audio...

Radio-Frequency Communications Principles

When the wireless (radiotelegraph) was invented, the U.S. Navy saw a possible use for it. It could be used for communications from shore stations to ships along the coast. In 1899, the first official naval radio message was sent from ship to shore. It only traveled a distance of 20 miles but that was a start. The next advance was in 1916 when the Navy first used radiotelephone between ships. Three years later the first airborne radio was used to communicate with a ground station. In the early years, communications was not the best because of poor tuning techniques. Receivers often did not pick up the signal. This problem was almost eliminated in 1931 when the first superheterodyne receivers were installed in the fleet. In 1944, another important event took place. The first successful radio teletypewriter transmissions between ships were completed. The first successful use of radiophoto (facsimile) occurred in 1945 with the transmission of the surrender document signing that ended World War II...

Anatech Electronics Intros 3 New Filter Models

Anatech Electronics offers the industry's largest portfolio of high-performance standard and customized RF and microwave filters and filter-related products for military, commercial, aerospace and defense, and industrial applications up to 40 GHz. Three new filter models have been introduced - two bandpass and one highpass. Part Number AE401B11912 is a cavity bandpass filter covering 401-402 MHz, AE1090CB1829 is a ceramic bandpass filter with a 6 MHz bandwidth centered at 1090 MHz, and AE18000SSH6616 is an 18 GHz suspended substrate highpass filter. Custom RF power directional coupler designs can be designed and produced when a standard cannot be found, or the requirements are such that a custom approach is necessary...

Russia-Ukraine "Radio War" Trying Patience of IARU

"The International Amateur Radio Union Region 1 Monitoring System (IARUMS) reports in the September issue of the IARUMS newsletter that the Russian-Ukrainian 'radio war' on and around 7055 kHz continues to be a major source of frustration. IARUMS Region 1 Coordinator Peter Jost, HB9CET, said the on-the-air conflict 'has been bothering us to an unbearable extent for a very long time and is still continuing.' Earlier this year, IARUMS reported that the Russian-Ukrainian radio war had escalated. 'In June, they used more frequencies than before, affecting our bands very hard.' Jost recounted. 'It is a great annoyance and a big shame.' Jost has pointed out that the IARU Monitoring System has little opportunity..."

Carl & Jerry: Therry and the Pirates

Have you heard of an electronic musical instrument called a Theremin? You can still buy from Moog today the same sort of Theremin that was described in this Carl & Jerry episode from a 1961 issue of Popular Electronics magazine. Ever the early adopters of breaking technology, the teenagers exploit the motion-sensitive feature of the Theremin in hopes of improving Carl's basketball game. As usual the boys, in mock dialog, describe the Theremin's operational theory for the benefit of readers not familiar with the musical instrument. They do not, however, mention that the device is named after its Russian inventor, Léon Theremin, who patented the device in 1928. Read on to discover how a Theremin strapped to Jerry's back was used to help Carl be a better free-thrower...


Das Jahrhundert des Kinos - Filmgeschichte weltweit
 

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